# Source code for pyro.poutine.handlers

```
"""
Poutine is a library of composable effect handlers for recording and modifying the
behavior of Pyro programs. These lower-level ingredients simplify the implementation
of new inference algorithms and behavior.
Handlers can be used as higher-order functions, decorators, or context managers
to modify the behavior of functions or blocks of code:
For example, consider the following Pyro program:
>>> def model(x):
... s = pyro.param("s", torch.tensor(0.5))
... z = pyro.sample("z", dist.Normal(x, s))
... return z ** 2
We can mark sample sites as observed using ``condition``,
which returns a callable with the same input and output signatures as ``model``:
>>> conditioned_model = poutine.condition(model, data={"z": 1.0})
We can also use handlers as decorators:
>>> @pyro.condition(data={"z": 1.0})
... def model(x):
... s = pyro.param("s", torch.tensor(0.5))
... z = pyro.sample("z", dist.Normal(x, s))
... return z ** 2
Or as context managers:
>>> with pyro.condition(data={"z": 1.0}):
... s = pyro.param("s", torch.tensor(0.5))
... z = pyro.sample("z", dist.Normal(0., s))
... y = z ** 2
Handlers compose freely:
>>> conditioned_model = poutine.condition(model, data={"z": 1.0})
>>> traced_model = poutine.trace(conditioned_model)
Many inference algorithms or algorithmic components can be implemented
in just a few lines of code::
guide_tr = poutine.trace(guide).get_trace(...)
model_tr = poutine.trace(poutine.replay(conditioned_model, trace=guide_tr)).get_trace(...)
monte_carlo_elbo = model_tr.log_prob_sum() - guide_tr.log_prob_sum()
"""
from __future__ import absolute_import, division, print_function
import functools
from six.moves import xrange
from pyro.poutine import util
from .block_messenger import BlockMessenger
from .broadcast_messenger import BroadcastMessenger
from .condition_messenger import ConditionMessenger
from .enumerate_messenger import EnumerateMessenger
from .escape_messenger import EscapeMessenger
from .infer_config_messenger import InferConfigMessenger
from .lift_messenger import LiftMessenger
from .markov_messenger import MarkovMessenger
from .mask_messenger import MaskMessenger
from .plate_messenger import PlateMessenger # noqa F403
from .replay_messenger import ReplayMessenger
from .runtime import NonlocalExit
from .scale_messenger import ScaleMessenger
from .trace_messenger import TraceMessenger
from .uncondition_messenger import UnconditionMessenger
############################################
# Begin primitive operations
############################################
[docs]def trace(fn=None, graph_type=None, param_only=None):
"""
Return a handler that records the inputs and outputs of primitive calls
and their dependencies.
Consider the following Pyro program:
>>> def model(x):
... s = pyro.param("s", torch.tensor(0.5))
... z = pyro.sample("z", dist.Normal(x, s))
... return z ** 2
We can record its execution using ``trace``
and use the resulting data structure to compute the log-joint probability
of all of the sample sites in the execution or extract all parameters.
>>> trace = trace(model).get_trace(0.0)
>>> logp = trace.log_prob_sum()
>>> params = [trace.nodes[name]["value"].unconstrained() for name in trace.param_nodes]
:param fn: a stochastic function (callable containing Pyro primitive calls)
:param graph_type: string that specifies the kind of graph to construct
:param param_only: if true, only records params and not samples
:returns: stochastic function decorated with a :class:`~pyro.poutine.trace_messenger.TraceMessenger`
"""
msngr = TraceMessenger(graph_type=graph_type, param_only=param_only)
return msngr(fn) if fn is not None else msngr
[docs]def replay(fn=None, trace=None, params=None):
"""
Given a callable that contains Pyro primitive calls,
return a callable that runs the original, reusing the values at sites in trace
at those sites in the new trace
Consider the following Pyro program:
>>> def model(x):
... s = pyro.param("s", torch.tensor(0.5))
... z = pyro.sample("z", dist.Normal(x, s))
... return z ** 2
``replay`` makes ``sample`` statements behave as if they had sampled the values
at the corresponding sites in the trace:
>>> old_trace = trace(model).get_trace(1.0)
>>> replayed_model = replay(model, trace=old_trace)
>>> bool(replayed_model(0.0) == old_trace.nodes["_RETURN"]["value"])
True
:param fn: a stochastic function (callable containing Pyro primitive calls)
:param trace: a :class:`~pyro.poutine.Trace` data structure to replay against
:param params: dict of names of param sites and constrained values
in fn to replay against
:returns: a stochastic function decorated with a :class:`~pyro.poutine.replay_messenger.ReplayMessenger`
"""
msngr = ReplayMessenger(trace=trace, params=params)
return msngr(fn) if fn is not None else msngr
[docs]def lift(fn=None, prior=None):
"""
Given a stochastic function with param calls and a prior distribution,
create a stochastic function where all param calls are replaced by sampling from prior.
Prior should be a callable or a dict of names to callables.
Consider the following Pyro program:
>>> def model(x):
... s = pyro.param("s", torch.tensor(0.5))
... z = pyro.sample("z", dist.Normal(x, s))
... return z ** 2
>>> lifted_model = lift(model, prior={"s": dist.Exponential(0.3)})
``lift`` makes ``param`` statements behave like ``sample`` statements
using the distributions in ``prior``. In this example, site `s` will now behave
as if it was replaced with ``s = pyro.sample("s", dist.Exponential(0.3))``:
>>> tr = trace(lifted_model).get_trace(0.0)
>>> tr.nodes["s"]["type"] == "sample"
True
>>> tr2 = trace(lifted_model).get_trace(0.0)
>>> bool((tr2.nodes["s"]["value"] == tr.nodes["s"]["value"]).all())
False
:param fn: function whose parameters will be lifted to random values
:param prior: prior function in the form of a Distribution or a dict of stochastic fns
:returns: ``fn`` decorated with a :class:`~pyro.poutine.lift_messenger.LiftMessenger`
"""
msngr = LiftMessenger(prior=prior)
return msngr(fn) if fn is not None else msngr
[docs]def block(fn=None, hide_fn=None, expose_fn=None, hide=None, expose=None, hide_types=None, expose_types=None):
"""
This handler selectively hides Pyro primitive sites from the outside world.
Default behavior: block everything.
A site is hidden if at least one of the following holds:
0. ``hide_fn(msg) is True`` or ``(not expose_fn(msg)) is True``
1. ``msg["name"] in hide``
2. ``msg["type"] in hide_types``
3. ``msg["name"] not in expose and msg["type"] not in expose_types``
4. ``hide``, ``hide_types``, and ``expose_types`` are all ``None``
For example, suppose the stochastic function fn has two sample sites "a" and "b".
Then any effect outside of ``BlockMessenger(fn, hide=["a"])``
will not be applied to site "a" and will only see site "b":
>>> def fn():
... a = pyro.sample("a", dist.Normal(0., 1.))
... return pyro.sample("b", dist.Normal(a, 1.))
>>> fn_inner = trace(fn)
>>> fn_outer = trace(block(fn_inner, hide=["a"]))
>>> trace_inner = fn_inner.get_trace()
>>> trace_outer = fn_outer.get_trace()
>>> "a" in trace_inner
True
>>> "a" in trace_outer
False
>>> "b" in trace_inner
True
>>> "b" in trace_outer
True
:param fn: a stochastic function (callable containing Pyro primitive calls)
:param: hide_fn: function that takes a site and returns True to hide the site
or False/None to expose it. If specified, all other parameters are ignored.
Only specify one of hide_fn or expose_fn, not both.
:param: expose_fn: function that takes a site and returns True to expose the site
or False/None to hide it. If specified, all other parameters are ignored.
Only specify one of hide_fn or expose_fn, not both.
:param hide: list of site names to hide
:param expose: list of site names to be exposed while all others hidden
:param hide_types: list of site types to be hidden
:param expose_types: list of site types to be exposed while all others hidden
:returns: stochastic function decorated with a :class:`~pyro.poutine.block_messenger.BlockMessenger`
"""
msngr = BlockMessenger(hide_fn=hide_fn, expose_fn=expose_fn,
hide=hide, expose=expose,
hide_types=hide_types, expose_types=expose_types)
return msngr(fn) if fn is not None else msngr
[docs]def broadcast(fn=None):
"""
Automatically broadcasts the batch shape of the stochastic function
at a sample site when inside a single or nested plate context.
The existing `batch_shape` must be broadcastable with the size
of the :class:`~pyro.plate` contexts installed in the
`cond_indep_stack`.
Notice how `model_automatic_broadcast` below automates expanding of
distribution batch shapes. This makes it easy to modularize a
Pyro model as the sub-components are agnostic of the wrapping
:class:`~pyro.plate` contexts.
>>> def model_broadcast_by_hand():
... with IndepMessenger("batch", 100, dim=-2):
... with IndepMessenger("components", 3, dim=-1):
... sample = pyro.sample("sample", dist.Bernoulli(torch.ones(3) * 0.5)
... .expand_by(100))
... assert sample.shape == torch.Size((100, 3))
... return sample
>>> @poutine.broadcast
... def model_automatic_broadcast():
... with IndepMessenger("batch", 100, dim=-2):
... with IndepMessenger("components", 3, dim=-1):
... sample = pyro.sample("sample", dist.Bernoulli(torch.tensor(0.5)))
... assert sample.shape == torch.Size((100, 3))
... return sample
"""
msngr = BroadcastMessenger()
return msngr(fn) if fn is not None else msngr
[docs]def escape(fn=None, escape_fn=None):
"""
Given a callable that contains Pyro primitive calls,
evaluate escape_fn on each site, and if the result is True,
raise a :class:`~pyro.poutine.runtime.NonlocalExit` exception that stops execution
and returns the offending site.
:param fn: a stochastic function (callable containing Pyro primitive calls)
:param escape_fn: function that takes a partial trace and a site,
and returns a boolean value to decide whether to exit at that site
:returns: stochastic function decorated with :class:`~pyro.poutine.escape_messenger.EscapeMessenger`
"""
msngr = EscapeMessenger(escape_fn)
return msngr(fn) if fn is not None else msngr
[docs]def condition(fn=None, data=None):
"""
Given a stochastic function with some sample statements
and a dictionary of observations at names,
change the sample statements at those names into observes
with those values.
Consider the following Pyro program:
>>> def model(x):
... s = pyro.param("s", torch.tensor(0.5))
... z = pyro.sample("z", dist.Normal(x, s))
... return z ** 2
To observe a value for site `z`, we can write
>>> conditioned_model = condition(model, data={"z": torch.tensor(1.)})
This is equivalent to adding `obs=value` as a keyword argument
to `pyro.sample("z", ...)` in `model`.
:param fn: a stochastic function (callable containing Pyro primitive calls)
:param data: a dict or a :class:`~pyro.poutine.Trace`
:returns: stochastic function decorated with a :class:`~pyro.poutine.condition_messenger.ConditionMessenger`
"""
msngr = ConditionMessenger(data=data)
return msngr(fn) if fn is not None else msngr
def uncondition(fn=None):
"""
Given a stochastic funtion with sample statements, conditioned on observed
values at some sample statements, removes the conditioning so that all
nodes are sampled from.
:param fn: a stochastic function (callable containing Pyro primitive calls)
:returns: a stochastic function decorated with a :class: `~pyro.poutine.uncondition_messenger.UnconditionMessenger`
"""
msngr = UnconditionMessenger()
return msngr(fn) if fn is not None else msngr
[docs]def infer_config(fn=None, config_fn=None):
"""
Given a callable that contains Pyro primitive calls
and a callable taking a trace site and returning a dictionary,
updates the value of the infer kwarg at a sample site to config_fn(site).
:param fn: a stochastic function (callable containing Pyro primitive calls)
:param config_fn: a callable taking a site and returning an infer dict
:returns: stochastic function decorated with :class:`~pyro.poutine.infer_config_messenger.InferConfigMessenger`
"""
msngr = InferConfigMessenger(config_fn)
return msngr(fn) if fn is not None else msngr
[docs]def scale(fn=None, scale=None):
"""
Given a stochastic function with some sample statements and a positive
scale factor, scale the score of all sample and observe sites in the
function.
Consider the following Pyro program:
>>> def model(x):
... s = pyro.param("s", torch.tensor(0.5))
... z = pyro.sample("z", dist.Normal(x, s), obs=1.0)
... return z ** 2
``scale`` multiplicatively scales the log-probabilities of sample sites:
>>> scaled_model = scale(model, scale=0.5)
>>> scaled_tr = trace(scaled_model).get_trace(0.0)
>>> unscaled_tr = trace(model).get_trace(0.0)
>>> bool((scaled_tr.log_prob_sum() == 0.5 * unscaled_tr.log_prob_sum()).all())
True
:param fn: a stochastic function (callable containing Pyro primitive calls)
:param scale: a positive scaling factor
:returns: stochastic function decorated with a :class:`~pyro.poutine.scale_messenger.ScaleMessenger`
"""
msngr = ScaleMessenger(scale=scale)
# XXX temporary compatibility fix
return msngr(fn) if callable(fn) else msngr
[docs]def mask(fn=None, mask=None):
"""
Given a stochastic function with some batched sample statements and
masking tensor, mask out some of the sample statements elementwise.
:param fn: a stochastic function (callable containing Pyro primitive calls)
:param torch.ByteTensor mask: a ``{0,1}``-valued masking tensor
(1 includes a site, 0 excludes a site)
:returns: stochastic function decorated with a :class:`~pyro.poutine.scale_messenger.MaskMessenger`
"""
msngr = MaskMessenger(mask=mask)
return msngr(fn) if fn is not None else msngr
[docs]def enum(fn=None, first_available_dim=None):
"""
Enumerates in parallel over discrete sample sites marked
``infer={"enumerate": "parallel"}``.
:param int first_available_dim: The first tensor dimension (counting
from the right) that is available for parallel enumeration. This
dimension and all dimensions left may be used internally by Pyro.
This should be a negative integer.
"""
assert first_available_dim < 0, first_available_dim
msngr = EnumerateMessenger(first_available_dim=first_available_dim)
return msngr(fn) if fn is not None else msngr
#########################################
# Begin composite operations
#########################################
[docs]def do(fn=None, data=None):
"""
Given a stochastic function with some sample statements
and a dictionary of values at names,
set the return values of those sites equal to the values
and hide them from the rest of the stack
as if they were hard-coded to those values
by using ``block``.
Consider the following Pyro program:
>>> def model(x):
... s = pyro.param("s", torch.tensor(0.5))
... z = pyro.sample("z", dist.Normal(x, s))
... return z ** 2
To intervene with a value for site `z`, we can write
>>> intervened_model = do(model, data={"z": torch.tensor(1.)})
This is equivalent to replacing `z = pyro.sample("z", ...)` with `z = value`.
:param fn: a stochastic function (callable containing Pyro primitive calls)
:param data: a ``dict`` or a :class:`~pyro.poutine.Trace`
:returns: stochastic function decorated with a :class:`~pyro.poutine.block_messenger.BlockMessenger`
and :class:`pyro.poutine.condition_messenger.ConditionMessenger`
"""
def wrapper(wrapped):
return block(condition(wrapped, data=data), hide=list(data.keys()))
return wrapper(fn) if fn is not None else wrapper
[docs]def queue(fn=None, queue=None, max_tries=None,
extend_fn=None, escape_fn=None, num_samples=None):
"""
Used in sequential enumeration over discrete variables.
Given a stochastic function and a queue,
return a return value from a complete trace in the queue.
:param fn: a stochastic function (callable containing Pyro primitive calls)
:param queue: a queue data structure like multiprocessing.Queue to hold partial traces
:param max_tries: maximum number of attempts to compute a single complete trace
:param extend_fn: function (possibly stochastic) that takes a partial trace and a site,
and returns a list of extended traces
:param escape_fn: function (possibly stochastic) that takes a partial trace and a site,
and returns a boolean value to decide whether to exit
:param num_samples: optional number of extended traces for extend_fn to return
:returns: stochastic function decorated with poutine logic
"""
if max_tries is None:
max_tries = int(1e6)
if extend_fn is None:
extend_fn = util.enum_extend
if escape_fn is None:
escape_fn = util.discrete_escape
if num_samples is None:
num_samples = -1
def wrapper(wrapped):
def _fn(*args, **kwargs):
for i in xrange(max_tries):
assert not queue.empty(), \
"trying to get() from an empty queue will deadlock"
next_trace = queue.get()
try:
ftr = trace(escape(replay(wrapped, trace=next_trace),
escape_fn=functools.partial(escape_fn,
next_trace)))
return ftr(*args, **kwargs)
except NonlocalExit as site_container:
site_container.reset_stack()
for tr in extend_fn(ftr.trace.copy(), site_container.site,
num_samples=num_samples):
queue.put(tr)
raise ValueError("max tries ({}) exceeded".format(str(max_tries)))
return _fn
return wrapper(fn) if fn is not None else wrapper
[docs]def markov(fn=None, history=1, keep=False):
"""
Markov dependency declaration.
This can be used in a variety of ways:
- as a context manager
- as a decorator for recursive functions
- as an iterator for markov chains
:param int history: The number of previous contexts visible from the
current context. Defaults to 1. If zero, this is similar to
:class:`pyro.plate`.
:param bool keep: If true, frames are replayable. This is important
when branching: if ``keep=True``, neighboring branches at the same
level can depend on each other; if ``keep=False``, neighboring branches
are independent (conditioned on their share"
"""
if fn is None:
# Used as a decorator with bound args
return MarkovMessenger(history=history, keep=keep)
if not callable(fn):
# Used as a generator
return MarkovMessenger(history=history, keep=keep).generator(iterable=fn)
# Used as a decorator with bound args
return MarkovMessenger(history=history, keep=keep)(fn)
```