# Copyright (c) 2017-2019 Uber Technologies, Inc.

import math
from functools import partial

import torch
import torch.nn as nn
import torch.nn.functional as F
from torch.distributions import Transform, constraints

from pyro.nn import DenseNN

from ..conditional import ConditionalTransformModule
from ..torch_transform import TransformModule
from ..util import copy_docs_from

@copy_docs_from(Transform)
domain = constraints.real_vector
codomain = constraints.real_vector
bijective = True

def __init__(self, params):
super().__init__(cache_size=1)
self._params = params
self._cached_logDetJ = None

# This method ensures that torch(u_hat, w) > -1, required for invertibility
def u_hat(self, u, w):
alpha = torch.matmul(u.unsqueeze(-2), w.unsqueeze(-1)).squeeze(-1)
a_prime = -1 + F.softplus(alpha)
return u + (a_prime - alpha) * w.div(w.pow(2).sum(dim=-1, keepdim=True))

def _call(self, x):
"""
:param x: the input into the bijection
:type x: torch.Tensor

Invokes the bijection x=>y; in the prototypical context of a
:class:~pyro.distributions.TransformedDistribution x is a sample from the base distribution (or the output
of a previous transform)
"""
x0, alpha_prime, beta_prime = (
self._params() if callable(self._params) else self._params
)

# Ensure invertibility using approach in appendix A.2
alpha = F.softplus(alpha_prime)
beta = -alpha + F.softplus(beta_prime)

# Compute y and logDet using Equation 14.
diff = x - x0
r = diff.norm(dim=-1, keepdim=True)
h = (alpha + r).reciprocal()
h_prime = -(h ** 2)
beta_h = beta * h

self._cached_logDetJ = (
(x0.size(-1) - 1) * torch.log1p(beta_h)
+ torch.log1p(beta_h + beta * h_prime * r)
).sum(-1)
return x + beta_h * diff

def _inverse(self, y):
"""
:param y: the output of the bijection
:type y: torch.Tensor
Inverts y => x. As noted above, this implementation is incapable of
inverting arbitrary values y; rather it assumes y is the result of a
previously computed application of the bijector to some x (which was
cached on the forward call)
"""

raise KeyError(
"ConditionedRadial object expected to find key in intermediates cache but didn't"
)

def log_abs_det_jacobian(self, x, y):
"""
Calculates the elementwise determinant of the log Jacobian
"""
x_old, y_old = self._cached_x_y
if x is not x_old or y is not y_old:
# This call to the parent class Transform will update the cache
# as well as calling self._call and recalculating y and log_detJ
self(x)

return self._cached_logDetJ

r"""
A 'radial' bijective transform using the equation,

:math:\mathbf{y} = \mathbf{x} + \beta h(\alpha,r)(\mathbf{x} - \mathbf{x}_0)

where :math:\mathbf{x} are the inputs, :math:\mathbf{y} are the outputs,
and the learnable parameters are :math:\alpha\in\mathbb{R}^+,
:math:\beta\in\mathbb{R}, :math:\mathbf{x}_0\in\mathbb{R}^D, for input
dimension :math:D, :math:r=||\mathbf{x}-\mathbf{x}_0||_2,
:math:h(\alpha,r)=1/(\alpha+r). For this to be an invertible transformation,
the condition :math:\beta>-\alpha is enforced.

Example usage:

>>> base_dist = dist.Normal(torch.zeros(10), torch.ones(10))
>>> pyro.module("my_transform", transform)  # doctest: +SKIP
>>> flow_dist = dist.TransformedDistribution(base_dist, [transform])
>>> flow_dist.sample()  # doctest: +SKIP

The inverse of this transform does not possess an analytical solution and is
left unimplemented. However, the inverse is cached when the forward operation is
called during sampling, and so samples drawn using the radial transform can be
scored.

:param input_dim: the dimension of the input (and output) variable.
:type input_dim: int

References:

[1] Danilo Jimenez Rezende, Shakir Mohamed. Variational Inference with
Normalizing Flows. [arXiv:1505.05770]

"""

domain = constraints.real_vector
codomain = constraints.real_vector
bijective = True

def __init__(self, input_dim):
super().__init__(self._params)

self.x0 = nn.Parameter(
torch.Tensor(
input_dim,
)
)
self.alpha_prime = nn.Parameter(
torch.Tensor(
1,
)
)
self.beta_prime = nn.Parameter(
torch.Tensor(
1,
)
)
self.input_dim = input_dim
self.reset_parameters()

def _params(self):
return self.x0, self.alpha_prime, self.beta_prime

[docs]    def reset_parameters(self):
stdv = 1.0 / math.sqrt(self.x0.size(0))
self.alpha_prime.data.uniform_(-stdv, stdv)
self.beta_prime.data.uniform_(-stdv, stdv)
self.x0.data.uniform_(-stdv, stdv)

[docs]@copy_docs_from(ConditionalTransformModule)
r"""
A conditional 'radial' bijective transform context using the equation,

:math:\mathbf{y} = \mathbf{x} + \beta h(\alpha,r)(\mathbf{x} - \mathbf{x}_0)

where :math:\mathbf{x} are the inputs, :math:\mathbf{y} are the outputs,
and :math:\alpha\in\mathbb{R}^+, :math:\beta\in\mathbb{R},
and :math:\mathbf{x}_0\in\mathbb{R}^D, are the output of a function, e.g. a NN,
with input :math:z\in\mathbb{R}^{M} representing the context variable to
condition on. The input dimension is :math:D,
:math:r=||\mathbf{x}-\mathbf{x}_0||_2, and :math:h(\alpha,r)=1/(\alpha+r).
For this to be an invertible transformation, the condition :math:\beta>-\alpha
is enforced.

Example usage:

>>> from pyro.nn.dense_nn import DenseNN
>>> input_dim = 10
>>> context_dim = 5
>>> batch_size = 3
>>> base_dist = dist.Normal(torch.zeros(input_dim), torch.ones(input_dim))
>>> param_dims = [input_dim, 1, 1]
>>> hypernet = DenseNN(context_dim, [50, 50], param_dims)
>>> z = torch.rand(batch_size, context_dim)
>>> flow_dist = dist.ConditionalTransformedDistribution(base_dist,
... [transform]).condition(z)
>>> flow_dist.sample(sample_shape=torch.Size([batch_size])) # doctest: +SKIP

The inverse of this transform does not possess an analytical solution and is
left unimplemented. However, the inverse is cached when the forward operation is
called during sampling, and so samples drawn using the radial transform can be
scored.

:param input_dim: the dimension of the input (and output) variable.
:type input_dim: int

References:

[1] Danilo Jimenez Rezende, Shakir Mohamed. Variational Inference with
Normalizing Flows. [arXiv:1505.05770]

"""

domain = constraints.real_vector
codomain = constraints.real_vector
bijective = True

def __init__(self, nn):
super().__init__()
self.nn = nn

def _params(self, context):
return self.nn(context)

[docs]    def condition(self, context):
params = partial(self._params, context)

"""
A helper function to create a :class:~pyro.distributions.transforms.Radial
object for consistency with other helpers.

:param input_dim: Dimension of input variable
:type input_dim: int

"""

"""
A helper function to create a
:class:~pyro.distributions.transforms.ConditionalRadial object that takes care
of constructing a dense network with the correct input/output dimensions.

:param input_dim: Dimension of input variable
:type input_dim: int
:param context_dim: Dimension of context variable
:type context_dim: int
:param hidden_dims: The desired hidden dimensions of the dense network. Defaults
to using [input_dim * 10, input_dim * 10]
:type hidden_dims: list[int]

"""

if hidden_dims is None:
hidden_dims = [input_dim * 10, input_dim * 10]
nn = DenseNN(context_dim, hidden_dims, param_dims=[input_dim, 1, 1])